Ukraine is a Presidential Representative democratic republic with the multi-party system. Executive power is conducted by the Government and the President. Legislative power belongs to Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian Parliament).
Ukraine became Independent on August 24, 1991. The first president of Ukraine was Leonid Kravchuk. It was necessary to solve a lot of difficult tasks at that time, such as building of own political system, new system of defense and security. The Ukrainian constitution was adopted in 1996. Constitution is the document that defines the general substructure of the Ukrainian Political system. According to the Constitution, Ukraine is a democratic, jural, sovereign, independent and social state.
President of Ukraine
Ukrainian constitution defines the President to be the Head of the State. President of Ukraine is not only the Head of the State, he is also a guarantor of civil and human rights, territorial integrity, freedoms, national sovereignty. Citizens of Ukraine elect the President every five years with the help of the secret vote.
Parliament (Verkhovna Rada) is the only one legislative body in Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada delegates are elected every five years by Ukrainian citizens. Parliament consists of 450 deputies. Laws of Ukraine with the Constitution of the country establish powers of Ukrainian Deputies. Deputies have a right to unite into special groups that are named Fractions. There has to be more than 25 members in a fraction.
What type of government does Ukraine have
The highest body of the executive power of Ukraine is represented by the Cabinet of Ministers. The Cabinet of Ministers was formed in 1991. The Cabinet has to act due to the laws of Ukraine, Orders of President and Constitution.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine consists of five members and several ministers who represent different ministries. Ministries are headed by the Vice Prime Ministers. The President of the country is the person who appoints the Premier and his candidacy has to be approved by the Parliament. President with the Prime minister nominate candidates to the Cabinet and they have to be approved by the Parliament. The Presidium of Cabinet consists of:
- Vice Prime ministers;
- First Vice Prime minister;
- the Prime minister.
Article 116 of the Ukrainian Constitution describes functions and duties of the Cabinet of Ministers.
Ukraine became a widely known country due to the great number of protests and strikes during the last years. So, speaking about Ukrainian government it is necessary to mention the Ukrainian Orange Revolution.
The Orange Revolution
The Orange Revolution was a series of demonstrations, strikes and protests and it lasted during November and December 2004. The Orange Revolution or the “Pomarancheva Revolutsiya”, as it was known in Ukraine was organized by people, who supported Victor Yuschenko. Victor Yuschenko was a candidate from the Western part of Ukraine. The two candidates who were going to become the President were Victor Yuschenko and Victor Yanukovych.
Some foreign and domestic election monitors informed that there had been some violations in the process of elections.
Ukrainian citizens were not satisfied with such results and didn’t want to see Yanukovych their president, because his name was associated with the high level of corruption.
The Orange revolution was peaceful and no one died during demonstrations and protests.
Supreme Court made the decision to organize the reelections and Victor Yuschenko became the winner. Orange color became the symbol of Ukrainian revolutionaries. People who take part in the Revolution were wearing orange ribbons, accessories and clothes.
Later, in 2010, Victor Yanukovich took revenge and became the President of Ukraine. He had a lot of strong supporters, like Rinat Akhmetov, who helped Yanukovych to put an end to the Orange era in the Ukrainian history.
Elections had to be in March 2015, but because of the Revolution in the country that began in 2014 it was agreed to organize elections in May 2014. Petro Poroshenko became the winner and the next Ukrainian President. He received about 13% of votes. Poroshenko became the winner in the first round of elections and the second round was not even held.
Ukrainian Revolution 2014 goals were to oust the President Victor Yanukovych and to change the constitution, as it was in 2004.
Corruption is the great problem in the Ukrainian society. It interfered into almost all spheres of life. It is a growing problem in the Ukrainian society and is becoming more and more widespread, not looking at the different restrictions and punishments.
Minister of Internal Affairs claimed that about 400 politicians were involved into the corruption schemes starting from 2010. A great number of corrupt officials were representatives of the Party of Regions and Yuliya Tymoshenko.
Many Ukrainian politicians hide their income and lead a life of the real millionaires.
It is a poor fact, but corruption exists in the juridical sphere, in the public sector, in the higher education sector, in healthcare and other branches. Ukrainian citizens claim that the most corrupted spheres are:
- the police;
- the judiciary;
- the parliament;
- the healthcare.
Ukrainian government debt was $63,2B in May 2017, if to compare this sum with the previous month, it is a little bit bigger. It was $63B in April 2017.
It is a sad fact but Ukrainian government debt to GDP is constantly growing. Specialists expect it to be 86 percent by the end of 2020. This information was provided by analysts and was based on the Trading Economics global macro models.