Ukrainians are ones of the most resourceful and smartest people in the world, Ukrainian scientists prove it. Throughout the history scientists from Ukraine repeatedly impressed their foreign colleagues with Ukrainian inventions. Here is the list of Ukrainian inventors and scientists, who became eminent in their field and made a great contribution to the world science.
Ilya Mechnikov (1845-1916)
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was an outstanding scientist from Ukraine, one of the founders of evolutionary embryology, microbiology and immunology, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine (1908). He became well-known for the global scientific public as the inventor of cellular phagocytosis and the author of phagocytosis theory.
Today Mechnikov`s name is included in the list of geniuses, whose researches and inventions simplified significantly the life for the whole humanity. His contribution to world medicine and to the future of successive generations can`t be overemphasized, because:
- he discovered the phagocytosis process in 1883, according to which body cells neutralized and removed deadly bacteria;
- he was the first scientist to invent the cure for syphilis;
- he discovered that aging was caused by toxic bacteria and payed a great attention to intestinal flora. Mechnikov proposed several preventive measures to prevent autointoxication. He also recommended to drink sour milk every day;
- he was the author of three books “The Nature of Man” (1903), “Immunity in Infectious Diseases” (1905), “The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies” (1907);
- he payed a lot of attention to the development of vaccines against plague, typhoid, cholera and tuberculosis.
Alexander Bohomolets (1881-1946)
Alexander Alexandrovich Bohomolets was a prominent Ukrainian scientist, founder of Ukrainian schools of pathophysiology, endocrinology and gerontology, the president of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (1930 — 1946), academician.
Alexander Bohomolets was the author of more than 150 fundamental scientific works about life extension and combating incurable (on that period) diseases that became the real scientific breakthrough. He was the first human in the world to pay attention to the reactive capacities of the organism in overcoming different diseases. The scientist grouped people on four basic types depending on their anatomy and connective tissue functioning that helped to define reactivity and to predispose certain illness.
Bohomolets was the first scientist to invent special serum that had the most effective impact on the connective tissue. “Bohomolets` serum” was successfully used during World War II, increasing the healing effect and saving a lot of lives.
Under his leadership unique method of donor blood preservation was invented. This method is still used nowadays.
Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972)
Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky was a well-known Ukrainian-American scientist, aircraft designer and inventor. Nowadays this one of the most popular Ukrainian scientists worldwide personifies successful development of three contemporary aircraft types. Four-engine biplanes, giant flying boats and multipurpose helicopters appeared due to that legendary aircraft designer.
Igor Sikorsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine, but in 1919 he emigrated to USA. His first plane the S-2 Sikorsky constructed in his homeland in 1910, one year later his sixth model the S-6 set a world record for the cruising speed with two passengers. In 1912 — 1914 Igor Sikorsky constructed first in the world four-engine biplane “Le Grand”, then its improved model “Ilya Muromets”.
After emigration Sikorsky founded his own company “Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation” in 1923, where he succeeded in manufacturing different types of planes and helicopters, which made him popular throughout the world.
For his significant contribution to world aviation Sikorsky received more than 80 honorable awards, prizes and diplomas.
Yuri Kondratyuk (1897-1942)
Yuri Vasilievich Kondratyuk was a Soviet Ukrainian scientist and engineer, one of the pioneers of astronautics, the author of studies on missiles and unique ideas about interplanetary journeys. His famous concept, called “Lunar Orbit Rendezvous” (1916) was utilized by NASA for the Project Apollo.
Aleksandr Shargey (the real scientist`s name) was born in 1897 in Poltava, Ukraine. He took the pseudonym “Yuri Kondratyuk” to be unrecognized after The Russian revolution in 1917. The scientist was forced to make his discoveries under the scourge of war, political repressions and his illness.
In 1919 Yuri Kondratyuk created his first work “To those who would read when building”, where he derived the rocket equation, proposed to use hydrogen metal compounds as the space rocket fuel etc. In his second work “Conquest of Interplanetary Space” (1925) the scientist described first stages of space development, suggested to use rocket artillery systems for satellite equipment and continued to study in details questions raised in his first work.
Sergey Korolyov (1906-1966)
Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov was one of the most famous Ukrainian scientists and inventors, Soviet rocket engineer and founder of astronautics. He was one of the brightest persons of the 20th century in the fields of spacecraft and shipbuilding.
Sergey Korolyov was the founder of rocket and space machinery, preserving the strategic parity and providing USSR the status of the leading rocket and space country. Under his leadership and guidance, the first artificial satellite of the Earth was launched (4 October 1957) and the first astronaut in the world Yuri Gagarin went to the space (12 April 1961).
At the height of his career Korolyov took the lead in developing the world`s first ballistic missile known today as R-7, which became the base for several generations of launch vehicles. During the next several years the scientist headed other projects concerning interplanetary missions and manned spacecraft.
Nikolai Amosov (1913-2002)
Nikolai Mikhailovich Amosov was a legendary Soviet and Ukrainian thoracic surgeon, medical scientist and inventor. He was the author of innovative methods in cardiology and thoracic surgery, the author of the systematic approach to human health, “social engineering” and problems of artificial intelligence.
Born in Russia, Nikolai moved to Kiev after World War II, where he achieved phenomenal results in Ukrainian science and medicine. He was the first surgeon in the world to create a prosthetic appliance of mitral valve. Amosov also invented special heart-lung machine and established first in Ukraine school of Medical and Biological Cybernetics.
For his stunning results, which took the world medicine to the qualitatively new level, the Doctor of Medical Science, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Nikolai Amosov was awarded such honorable prizes as Orders of the Red Star, Lenin Prize, Hero of Socialist Labor, Gold Fortune.
Boris Paton (1918)
Boris Yevhenyevich Paton, one of the most famous people from Ukraine, is a prominent Ukrainian scientist in the fields of welding and metallurgy, doctor of technical science, professor. Since 1953 he is the head of O.Paton Electric Welding Institute and since 1962 — the president of National Academy of sciences of Ukraine.
Paton`s scientific research was aimed at the processes of automatic and semi-automatic welding under flux, development of theoretical framework on creating the automatic and semiautomatic arc welding and power supply, the problems of welding managing and others. He also payed a great attention to the welding metallurgy, improving and inventing new metal materials.
Borys Paton has gained a huge number of awards and honors, among which are the following:
- Hero of Socialist Labor (1969, 1978);
- Lomonosov Gold Medal (1980);
- Honor of the President of Ukraine (1993);
- Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (5th, 4th and 1st classes);
- Hero of Ukraine (1998);
- Order of Liberty (2012).
Platon Kostiuk (1924-2010)
Platon Hryhorovych Kostiuk was a prominent Ukrainian physiologist, neurophysiologist, biophysicist, member of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences. He was also the recipient of such honorary degrees as the award of the President of Ukraine (1993), the order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise 5th Class (1998), Honored Worker of Science and Technology (2003), the Hero of Ukraine (2007) and others.
The main scientific directions of Platon Kostiuk`s researches are neurophysiology, cell biophysics, molecular biology of ionic channels and membrane receptors.
He was the first scientist in Ukraine and USSR to use microelectrode technique for researching the structural and functional organization of nerve centers, biophysical and molecular mechanisms of neuronal excitation and inhibition. He also introduced new methods of electrically active cells registration and created seven electrophysiological devices.
Kostiuk alongside his colleagues was the first in the world to prove the existence of calcium channels in neuronal membranes. He also discovered two types of calcium currents: on high-voltage and low-voltage.
Platon Kostiuk is the author of 400 scientific publications, 8 monographies and 3 textbooks.